How do definitions of disinformation change across time and geopolitical setting?

What role do cross-cultural mediations of the Cold War and post-communist transformation periods play in these mutations? What, if any, shared attributes do they manifest and how do we theorise them?

What do Soviet disinformation and reactions to it reveal about current disinformation and counter-disinformation activities?

Where then, and now, is their presumed deceit located, and with what implications: in their truth claims; their narrative frames; or their perpetrators’ self-representation?

What linguistic trajectories do disinformation narratives follow?

How are they adapted for different contexts and how well do they ‘translate’ for their audiences? What is the role of inter-state, translingual collusion in their generation? How does the perceived primacy of global English affect the dissemination, camouflaging and deconstruction of disinformation?

In what socio-political environments are these narratives rooted and how does this affect their formal attributes?

How are their truth statuses bolstered? How do communication strategies change across platforms and genres, and from digital to traditional media?

How are disinformation narratives appropriated by different audiences?

How are they used to draw Self/Other distinctions and how do they relate to different news sources and diets?

How do we develop policy responses that address the challenges posed by disinformation’s various mutations?

How might we test the efficacy of lingua-culturally calibrated counterdisinformation strategies? Can we account for their interaction with disinformation narratives?